Noel was not present at the time of the mauling
The circumstances that gave rise to the attack were not foreseeable
Only in retrospect (i.e. after the mauling took place) could one appreciate that the dogs were capable of killing.
Knoller was a hero for trying to save the life of Whipple;
No one had ever complained about Bane and Hera’s past displays of aggression
Bane and Hera were well-behaved and nonaggressive the vast majority of time;
Knoller and Noel were responsible owners who kept Bane and Hera as pets.
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